Wednesday July 30 , 2014
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The Museum at Zsámbék opened its doors to the visitors on 22 September 2006, with the help of the Ministry of Defence and the Military History Institute and Museum.

The special Branch of Service Museum, the first of its kind in Hungary, is designed to illustrate the history of Hungarian air defence through the equipment on display and also by other methods. The several hectare area of the Air Defence Missile Battalion which used to be based not far from Zsámbék makes it possible for the sizeable air defence assets to be exhibited. The change of regime, the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and our NATO accession necessitated the transformation of our defence forces. During this period battalions were disbanded, garrisons were replaced and a lot of equipment was withdrawn forms service, which could only be saved from decay by the establishment of the Museum.

The formerly top secret military installation formed part of the air defence system around Budapest. The Battalion at Zsámbék was disbanded in 1997 and its abandoned area with its natural and historic assets drew the attention of the Zsámbék Basin Tourism Association. Upon their recommendation it became a protected monument in 2005 and now it is a 20th century memorial place in the history of fortifications. In the line of our historical monuments it represents the fort of modern times after our earth castles, medieval castles and 19th  century fortresses.

According to the development plan entitled „from military base to cultural base” the NATURA -2000 nature protection area and the 24 buildings and other structures on it now serve as a theatre, art, military history, tourism and nature conservation base as well. In addition to the Museum the base also houses one of the best known Hungarian open air theatres, the Zsámbék Saturdays and also a lot more cultural events.

From the 1960s to the mid-1990s the system serving the defence of Budapest’s airspace consisted of mixed air defence missile battalions which were capable of destroying enemy targets within the range of 500m and 257km at altitudes within the range of 20m and 40 km. The battalions making up the system were based in the vicinity of the settlements around Budapest, one of which was the battalion at Zsámbék.

The Zsámbék Air Defence Missile Battalion was equipped with medium range air defence missile technology with a target range extending from 3.5km to 45km.

Additional technology can also be found in the collection of the museum. Air defence missiles can be classified according to their effective ranges as very short range (up to 5km), short range (5-30km), medium range (30-150km) and long range (over 150km).

The historic monument includes the area of the former air defence battalion so visitors can see the fortifications and other constructions of a military installation of this kind from the second half of the 20th century including the command post, the sites of the two reconnaissance radars, the sites of the six missile launch pads, the immediate reaction missile shelters and other buildings and structures.

In the first part of the Museum the standard technology of the period between 1977 and 1997 can be seen. In the radar-park of the Museum visitors can see the P-18, the P-19, the P-37 and the P-40 radars as well as artillery pieces and missiles used by the army air defence troops. A wide range of equipment can be found here including the V-750 training missile complete with a launch pad and a transporter-loader vehicle, a UV cabin, the STRELA-10 missile system, the ZSU-57/2 self-propelled gun, the VOLHOV, KRUG, KUB, VEGA and NEVA missile systems and a lot more assets that played a determining role in the air defence of the above period.

 

Légvédelmi Múzeum térkép